top of page

1. Fleisher LA, Fleischmann KE, Auerbach AD, Barnason SA, Beckman JA, Bozkurt B, Davila-Roman VG, Gerhard-Herman MD, Holly TA, Kane GC, Marine JE, Nelson MT, Spencer CC, Thompson A, Ting HH, Uretsky BF, Wijeysundera DN; American College of Cardiology; American Heart Association. 2014 ACC/AHA guideline on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation and management of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Dec 9;64(22):e77-137. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.07.944. Epub 2014 Aug 1. PMID: 25091544.

2. Duceppe E, Parlow J, MacDonald P, Lyons K, McMullen M, Srinathan S, Graham M, Tandon V, Styles K, Bessissow A, Sessler DI, Bryson G, Devereaux PJ. Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiac Risk Assessment and Management for Patients Who Undergo Noncardiac Surgery. Can J Cardiol. 2017 Jan;33(1):17-32. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2016.09.008. Epub 2016 Oct 4. Erratum in: Can J Cardiol. 2017 Dec;33(12 ):1735. PMID: 27865641.

3. Halvorsen S, Mehilli J, Cassese S, Hall TS, Abdelhamid M, Barbato E, De Hert S, de Laval I, Geisler T, Hinterbuchner L, Ibanez B, Lenarczyk R, Mansmann UR, McGreavy P, Mueller C, Muneretto C, Niessner A, Potpara TS, Ristić A, Sade LE, Schirmer H, Schüpke S, Sillesen H, Skulstad H, Torracca L, Tutarel O, Van Der Meer P, Wojakowski W, Zacharowski K; ESC Scientific Document Group. Linee guida ESC 2022 per la valutazione cardiovascolare e la gestione dei pazienti sottoposti a chirurgia non cardiaca elaborate dalla task force per la valutazione cardiovascolare e la gestione dei pazienti sottoposti a chirurgia non cardiaca della Società Europea di Cardiologia (ESC) con il patrocinio della European Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care (ESAIC) [2022 ESC Guidelines on cardiovascular assessment and management of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery Developed by the task force for cardiovascular assessment and management of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Endorsed by the European Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care (ESAIC)]. G Ital Cardiol (Rome). 2023 Jan;24(1 Suppl 1):e1-e102. Italian. doi: 10.1714/3956.39326. PMID: 36645369.

4. van Diepen S, Bakal JA, McAlister FA, Ezekowitz JA. Mortality and readmission of patients with heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or coronary artery disease undergoing noncardiac surgery: an analysis of 38 047 patients. Circulation. 2011 Jul 19;124(3):289-96. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.011130. Epub 2011 Jun 27. PMID: 21709059.

Lee TH, Marcantonio ER, Mangione CM, Thomas EJ, Polanczyk CA, Cook EF, Sugarbaker DJ, Donaldson MC, Poss R, Ho KK, Ludwig LE, Pedan A, Goldman L. Derivation and prospective validation of a simple index for prediction of cardiac risk of major noncardiac surgery. Circulation. 1999 Sep 7;100(10):1043-9. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.100.10.1043. PMID: 10477528.

5. Liu Y, Cohen ME, Hall BL, Ko CY, Bilimoria KY. Evaluation and Enhancement of Calibration in the American College of Surgeons NSQIP Surgical Risk Calculator. J Am Coll Surg. 2016 Aug;223(2):231-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2016.03.040. Epub 2016 May 19. PMID: 27212006.

6. Rajagopal S, Ruetzler K, Ghadimi K, Horn EM, Kelava M, Kudelko KT, Moreno-Duarte I, Preston I, Rose Bovino LL, Smilowitz NR, Vaidya A; American Heart Association Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation, and the Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing. Evaluation and Management of Pulmonary Hypertension in Noncardiac Surgery: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2023 Apr 25;147(17):1317-1343. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000001136. Epub 2023 Mar 16. PMID: 36924225.

7. Benesch C, Glance LG, Derdeyn CP, Fleisher LA, Holloway RG, Messé SR, Mijalski C, Nelson MT, Power M, Welch BG; American Heart Association Stroke Council; Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Perioperative Neurological Evaluation and Management to Lower the Risk of Acute Stroke in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac, Nonneurological Surgery: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Circulation. 2021 May 11;143(19):e923-e946. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000968. Epub 2021 Apr 8. PMID: 33827230.

8. Glance LG, Benesch CG, Holloway RG, Thirukumaran CP, Nadler JW, Eaton MP, Fleming FJ, Dick AW. Association of Time Elapsed Since Ischemic Stroke With Risk of Recurrent Stroke in Older Patients Undergoing Elective Nonneurologic, Noncardiac Surgery. JAMA Surg. 2022 Aug 1;157(8):e222236. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2022.2236. Epub 2022 Aug 10. PMID: 35767247; PMCID: PMC9244776.

9. Lerman BJ, Popat RA, Assimes TL, Heidenreich PA, Wren SM. Association Between Heart Failure and Postoperative Mortality Among Patients Undergoing Ambulatory Noncardiac Surgery. JAMA Surg. 2019 Oct 1;154(10):907-914. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2019.2110. PMID: 31290953; PMCID: PMC6624813.

10. Fayad A, Ansari MT, Yang H, Ruddy T, Wells GA. Perioperative Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery Is an Independent Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Events: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Anesthesiology. 2016 Jul;125(1):72-91. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000001132. PMID: 27077638.

11. Committee on Standards and Practice Parameters; Apfelbaum JL, Connis RT, Nickinovich DG; American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Preanesthesia Evaluation; Pasternak LR, Arens JF, Caplan RA, Connis RT, Fleisher LA, Flowerdew R, Gold BS, Mayhew JF, Nickinovich DG, Rice LJ, Roizen MF, Twersky RS. Practice advisory for preanesthesia evaluation: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Preanesthesia Evaluation. Anesthesiology. 2012 Mar;116(3):522-38. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e31823c1067. PMID: 22273990.

12. Heidenreich PA, Bozkurt B, Aguilar D, Allen LA, Byun JJ, Colvin MM, Deswal A, Drazner MH, Dunlay SM, Evers LR, Fang JC, Fedson SE, Fonarow GC, Hayek SS, Hernandez AF, Khazanie P, Kittleson MM, Lee CS, Link MS, Milano CA, Nnacheta LC, Sandhu AT, Stevenson LW, Vardeny O, Vest AR, Yancy CW. 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2022 May 3;145(18):e895-e1032. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000001063. Epub 2022 Apr 1. Erratum in: Circulation. 2022 May 3;145(18):e1033. Erratum in: Circulation. 2022 Sep 27;146(13):e185. Erratum in: Circulation. 2023 Apr 4;147(14):e674. PMID: 35363499.

13. Lee SM, Takemoto S, Wallace AW. Association between Withholding Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in the Early Postoperative Period and 30-day Mortality: A Cohort Study of the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System. Anesthesiology. 2015 Aug;123(2):288-306. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000739. PMID: 26200181.

14. Shiffermiller JF, Monson BJ, Vokoun CW, Beachy MW, Smith MP, Sullivan JN, Vasey AJ, Guda P, Lyden ER, Ellis SJ, Pang H, Thompson RE. Prospective Randomized Evaluation of Preoperative Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition (PREOP-ACEI). J Hosp Med. 2018 Sep;13(10):661-667. doi: 10.12788/jhm.3036. Epub 2018 Jul 25. PMID: 30261084.

15. Mudumbai SC, Takemoto S, Cason BA, Au S, Upadhyay A, Wallace AW. Thirty-day mortality risk associated with the postoperative nonresumption of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: a retrospective study of the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System. J Hosp Med. 2014 May;9(5):289-96. doi: 10.1002/jhm.2182. PMID: 24799360.

16. Hollmann C, Fernandes NL, Biccard BM. A Systematic Review of Outcomes Associated With Withholding or Continuing Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Before Noncardiac Surgery. Anesth Analg. 2018 Sep;127(3):678-687. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000002837. PMID: 29381513.

17. Roshanov PS, Rochwerg B, Patel A, Salehian O, Duceppe E, Belley-Côté EP, Guyatt GH, Sessler DI, Le Manach Y, Borges FK, Tandon V, Worster A, Thompson A, Koshy M, Devereaux B, Spencer FA, Sanders RD, Sloan EN, Morley EE, Paul J, Raymer KE, Punthakee Z, Devereaux PJ. Withholding versus Continuing Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors or Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers before Noncardiac Surgery: An Analysis of the Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN Prospective Cohort. Anesthesiology. 2017 Jan;126(1):16-27. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000001404. PMID: 27775997.

18. Ackland GL, Patel A, Abbott TEF, Begum S, Dias P, Crane DR, Somanath S, Middleditch A, Cleland S, Gutierrez Del Arroyo A, Brealey D, Pearse RM; Stopping Perioperative ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin-II receptor blockers (SPACE) trial investigators. Discontinuation vs. continuation of renin-angiotensin system inhibition before non-cardiac surgery: the SPACE trial. Eur Heart J. 2023 Nov 7:ehad716. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehad716. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37935833.

19. Pfeifer KJ, Selzer A, Mendez CE, Whinney CM, Rogers B, Simha V, Regan D, Urman RD, Mauck K. Preoperative Management of Endocrine, Hormonal, and Urologic Medications: Society for Perioperative Assessment and Quality Improvement (SPAQI) Consensus Statement. Mayo Clin Proc. 2021 Jun;96(6):1655-1669. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.10.002. Epub 2021 Mar 10. PMID: 33714600.

20. Taniguchi T, Morimoto T, Shiomi H, Ando K, Shirai S, Kanamori N, Murata K, Kitai T, Kawase Y, Kadota K, Miyake M, Izumi C, Minamino-Muta E, Kato T, Ishii K, Nagao K, Saito N, Minatoya K, Kimura T; CURRENT AS Registry Investigators. Elective Non-Cardiac Surgery in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis - Observations From the CURRENT AS Registry. Circ J. 2020 Jun 25;84(7):1173-1182. doi: 10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0026. Epub 2020 May 19. PMID: 32435000.

21. Otto CM, Nishimura RA, Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Erwin JP 3rd, Gentile F, Jneid H, Krieger EV, Mack M, McLeod C, O'Gara PT, Rigolin VH, Sundt TM 3rd, Thompson A, Toly C. 2020 ACC/AHA Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2021 Feb 2;143(5):e35-e71. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000932. Epub 2020 Dec 17. Erratum in: Circulation. 2021 Feb 2;143(5):e228. Erratum in: Circulation. 2021 Mar 9;143(10):e784. PMID: 33332149.

22. Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Management [corrected]. Anesthesiology. 2020 Feb;132(2):225-252. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000002821. Erratum in: Anesthesiology. 2020 Feb 5;:null. PMID: 31939838.

23. Douketis JD, Spyropoulos AC, Murad MH, Arcelus JI, Dager WE, Dunn AS, Fargo RA, Levy JH, Samama CM, Shah SH, Sherwood MW, Tafur AJ, Tang LV, Moores LK. Perioperative Management of Antithrombotic Therapy: An American College of Chest Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline. Chest. 2022 Aug 9:S0012-3692(22)01359-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2022.07.025. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35964704.

24. Narouze S, Benzon HT, Provenzano D, Buvanendran A, De Andres J, Deer T, Rauck R, Huntoon MA. Interventional Spine and Pain Procedures in Patients on Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Medications (Second Edition): Guidelines From the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, the International Neuromodulation Society, the North American Neuromodulation Society, and the World Institute of Pain. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2018 Apr;43(3):225-262. doi: 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000700. PMID: 29278603.

25. Rajagopal S, Ruetzler K, Ghadimi K, Horn EM, Kelava M, Kudelko KT, Moreno-Duarte I, Preston I, Rose Bovino LL, Smilowitz NR, Vaidya A; American Heart Association Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation, and the Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing. Evaluation and Management of Pulmonary Hypertension in Noncardiac Surgery: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2023 Apr 25;147(17):1317-1343. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000001136. Epub 2023 Mar 16. PMID: 36924225.

26. Lee TH, Marcantonio ER, Mangione CM, Thomas EJ, Polanczyk CA, Cook EF, Sugarbaker DJ, Donaldson MC, Poss R, Ho KK, Ludwig LE, Pedan A, Goldman L. Derivation and prospective validation of a simple index for prediction of cardiac risk of major noncardiac surgery. Circulation. 1999 Sep 7;100(10):1043-9. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.100.10.1043. PMID: 10477528.

27. Gupta PK, Gupta H, Sundaram A, Kaushik M, Fang X, Miller WJ, Esterbrooks DJ, Hunter CB, Pipinos II, Johanning JM, Lynch TG, Forse RA, Mohiuddin SM, Mooss AN. Development and validation of a risk calculator for prediction of cardiac risk after surgery. Circulation. 2011 Jul 26;124(4):381-7. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.015701. Epub 2011 Jul 5. PMID: 21730309.

28. Davis C, Tait G, Carroll J, Wijeysundera DN, Beattie WS. The Revised Cardiac Risk Index in the new millennium: a single-centre prospective cohort re-evaluation of the original variables in 9,519 consecutive elective surgical patients. Can J Anaesth. 2013 Sep;60(9):855-63. doi: 10.1007/s12630-013-9988-5. Epub 2013 Jun 28. PMID: 23813289.

29. Roshanov PS, Sessler DI, Chow CK, Garg AX, Walsh MW, Lam NN, Hildebrand AM, Biccard BM, Acedillo RR, MacNeil SD, Lee VW, Szczeklik W, Mrkobrada M, Thabane L, Devereaux PJ. Predicting Myocardial Injury and Other Cardiac Complications After Elective Noncardiac Surgery with the Revised Cardiac Risk Index: The VISION Study. Can J Cardiol. 2021 Aug;37(8):1215-1224. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2021.03.015. Epub 2021 Mar 23. PMID: 33766613.

30. Cohn SL, Fernandez Ros N. Comparison of 4 Cardiac Risk Calculators in Predicting Postoperative Cardiac Complications After Noncardiac Operations. Am J Cardiol. 2018 Jan 1;121(1):125-130. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2017.09.031. Epub 2017 Oct 13. PMID: 29126584.

31. Fronczek J, Polok K, Devereaux PJ, Górka J, Archbold RA, Biccard B, Duceppe E, Le Manach Y, Sessler DI, Duchińska M, Szczeklik W. External validation of the Revised Cardiac Risk Index and National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Myocardial Infarction and Cardiac Arrest calculator in noncardiac vascular surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2019 Oct;123(4):421-429. doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2019.05.029. Epub 2019 Jun 27. PMID: 31256916.

32. Oliver CM, Wagstaff D, Bedford J, Moonesinghe SR; Peri-operative Quality Improvement Project delivery team and collaborative. Systematic development and validation of a predictive model for major postoperative complications in the Peri-operative Quality Improvement Project (PQIP) dataset. Anaesthesia. 2024 Feb 18. doi: 10.1111/anae.16248. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38369686.

33. Wijeysundera DN, Pearse RM, Shulman MA, Abbott TEF, Torres E, Ambosta A, Croal BL, Granton JT, Thorpe KE, Grocott MPW, Farrington C, Myles PS, Cuthbertson BH; METS study investigators. Assessment of functional capacity before major non-cardiac surgery: an international, prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2018 Jun 30;391(10140):2631-2640. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31131-0. PMID: 30070222.

34. Wijeysundera DN, Beattie WS, Hillis GS, Abbott TEF, Shulman MA, Ackland GL, Mazer CD, Myles PS, Pearse RM, Cuthbertson BH; Measurement of Exercise Tolerance before Surgery Study Investigators; Myles PS, Shulman MA, Wallace S, Farrington C, Thompson B, Ellis M, Borg B, Kerridge RK, Douglas J, Brannan J, Pretto J, Godsall MG, Beauchamp N, Allen S, Kennedy A, Wright E, Malherbe J, Ismail H, Riedel B, Melville A, Sivakumar H, Murmane A, Kenchington K, Kirabiyik Y, Gurunathan U, Stonell C, Brunello K, Steele K, Tronstad O, Masel P, Dent A, Smith E, Bodger A, Abolfathi M, Sivalingam P, Hall A, Painter TW, Macklin S, Elliott A, Carrera AM, Terblanche NCS, Pitt S, Samuels J, Wilde C, Leslie K, MacCormick A, Bramley D, Southcott AM, Grant J, Taylor H, Bates S, Towns M, Tippett A, Marshall F, Mazer CD, Kunasingam J, Yagnik A, Crescini C, Yagnik S, McCartney CJL, Choi S, Somascanthan P, Flores K, Wijeysundera DN, Beattie WS, Karkouti K, Clarke HA, Jerath A, McCluskey SA, Wasowicz M, Granton JT, Day L, Pazmino-Canizares J, Oh P, Belliard R, Lee L, Dobson K, Chan V, Brull R, Ami N, Stanbrook M, Hagen K, Campbell D, Short T, Van Der Westhuizen J, Higgie K, Lindsay H, Jang R, Wong C, Mcallister D, Ali M, Kumar J, Waymouth E, Kim C, Dimech J, Lorimer M, Tai J, Miller R, Sara R, Collingwood A, Olliff S, Gabriel S, Houston H, Dalley P, Hurford S, Hunt A, Andrews L, Navarra L, Jason-Smith A, Thompson H, McMillan N, Back G, Croal BL, Lum M, Martin D, James S, Filipe H, Pinto M, Kynaston S, Pearse RM, Abbott TEF, Phull M, Beilstein C, Bodger P, Everingham K, Hu Y, Niebrzegowska E, Corriea C, Creary T, Januszewska M, Ahmad T, Whalley J, Haslop R, McNeil J, Brown A, MacDonald N, Pakats M, Greaves K, Jhanji S, Raobaikady R, Black E, Rooms M, Lawrence H, Koutra M, Pirie K, Gertsman M, Jack S, Celinski M, Levett D, Edwards M, Salmon K, Bolger C, Loughney L, Seaward L, Collins H, Tyrell B, Tantony N, Golder K, Ackland GL, Stephens RCM, Gallego-Paredes L, Reyes A, Gutierrez Del Arroyo A, Raj A, Lifford R; International and National Coordinators; Central Project Office Operations Committee; CPET Methods Committee; Outcome Adjudication Committee; International Steering Committee. Integration of the Duke Activity Status Index into preoperative risk evaluation: a multicentre prospective cohort study. Br J Anaesth. 2020 Mar;124(3):261-270. doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2019.11.025. Epub 2019 Dec 19. PMID: 31864719.

35. Lurati Buse GA, Mauermann E, Ionescu D, Szczeklik W, De Hert S, Filipovic M, Beck-Schimmer B, Spadaro S, Matute P, Bolliger D, Turhan SC, van Waes J, Lagarto F, Theodoraki K, Gupta A, Gillmann HJ, Guzzetti L, Kotfis K, Wulf H, Larmann J, Corneci D, Chammartin-Basnet F, Howell SJ; MET: Reevaluation for Perioperative Cardiac Risk investigators; European Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Risk assessment for major adverse cardiovascular events after noncardiac surgery using self-reported functional capacity: international prospective cohort study. Br J Anaesth. 2023 Jun;130(6):655-665. doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2023.02.030. Epub 2023 Apr 1. PMID: 37012173.

36, Lurati Buse GAL, Puelacher C, Gualandro DM, Genini AS, Hidvegi R, Bolliger D, Arslani K, Steiner LA, Kindler C, Mueller C; BASEL-PMI Investigators. Association between self-reported functional capacity and major adverse cardiac events in patients at elevated risk undergoing noncardiac surgery: a prospective diagnostic cohort study. Br J Anaesth. 2021 Jan;126(1):102-110. doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2020.08.041. Epub 2020 Oct 17. PMID: 33081973.

37. Lurati Buse G, Larmann J, Gillmann HJ, Kotfis K, Ganter MT, Bolliger D, Filipovic M, Guzzetti L, Chammartin F, Mauermann E, Ionescu D, Szczeklik W, De Hert S, Beck-Schimmer B, Howell SJ; METREPAIR NTproBNP Subcohort Investigators. NT-proBNP or Self-Reported Functional Capacity in Estimating Risk of Cardiovascular Events After Noncardiac Surgery. JAMA Netw Open. 2023 Nov 1;6(11):e2342527. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.42527. PMID: 37938844; PMCID: PMC10632953.

38. Vernooij LM, van Klei WA, Moons KG, Takada T, van Waes J, Damen JA. The comparative and added prognostic value of biomarkers to the Revised Cardiac Risk Index for preoperative prediction of major adverse cardiac events and all-cause mortality in patients who undergo noncardiac surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Dec 21;12(12):CD013139. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013139.pub2. PMID: 34931303; PMCID: PMC8689147.

39. Duceppe E, Patel A, Chan MTV, Berwanger O, Ackland G, Kavsak PA, Rodseth R, Biccard B, Chow CK, Borges FK, Guyatt G, Pearse R, Sessler DI, Heels-Ansdell D, Kurz A, Wang CY, Szczeklik W, Srinathan S, Garg AX, Pettit S, Sloan EN, Januzzi JL Jr, McQueen M, Buse GL, Mills NL, Zhang L, Sapsford R, Paré G, Walsh M, Whitlock R, Lamy A, Hill S, Thabane L, Yusuf S, Devereaux PJ. Preoperative N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Cardiovascular Events After Noncardiac Surgery: A Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Jan 21;172(2):96-104. doi: 10.7326/M19-2501. Epub 2019 Dec 24. PMID: 31869834.

40. Lurati Buse GA, Koller MT, Burkhart C, Seeberger MD, Filipovic M. The predictive value of preoperative natriuretic peptide concentrations in adults undergoing surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 2011 May;112(5):1019-33. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e31820f286f. Epub 2011 Mar 3. PMID: 21372274.

41. Wolk MJ, Bailey SR, Doherty JU, Douglas PS, Hendel RC, Kramer CM, Min JK, Patel MR, Rosenbaum L, Shaw LJ, Stainback RF, Allen JM; American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force. ACCF/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2013 multimodality appropriate use criteria for the detection and risk assessment of stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Feb 4;63(4):380-406. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.009. Epub 2013 Dec 16. PMID: 24355759.

42. Writing Committee Members; Lawton JS, Tamis-Holland JE, Bangalore S, Bates ER, Beckie TM, Bischoff JM, Bittl JA, Cohen MG, DiMaio JM, Don CW, Fremes SE, Gaudino MF, Goldberger ZD, Grant MC, Jaswal JB, Kurlansky PA, Mehran R, Metkus TS Jr, Nnacheta LC, Rao SV, Sellke FW, Sharma G, Yong CM, Zwischenberger BA. 2021 ACC/AHA/SCAI Guideline for Coronary Artery Revascularization: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2022 Jan 18;79(2):e21-e129. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.09.006. Epub 2021 Dec 9. Erratum in: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2022 Apr 19;79(15):1547. PMID: 34895950.

43. Kaw R, Nagarajan V, Jaikumar L, Halkar M, Mohananey D, Hernandez AV, Ramakrishna H, Wijeysundera D. Predictive Value of Stress Testing, Revised Cardiac Risk Index, and Functional Status in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2019 Apr;33(4):927-932. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2018.07.020. Epub 2018 Jul 24. PMID: 30154042.

44. Thygesen K, Alpert JS, Jaffe AS, Chaitman BR, Bax JJ, Morrow DA, White HD; Executive Group on behalf of the Joint European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA)/World Heart Federation (WHF) Task Force for the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction. Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (2018). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 Oct 30;72(18):2231-2264. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.08.1038. Epub 2018 Aug 25. PMID: 30153967.

45. Martinez-Perez S, van Waes JAR, Vernooij LM, Cuthbertson BH, Beattie WS, Wijeysundera DN, van Klei WA. Postoperative troponin surveillance to detect myocardial infarction: an observational cohort modelling study. Br J Anaesth. 2024 Jan 16:S0007-0912(23)00736-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2023.12.019. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38233301.

46. Sahai SK, Balonov K, Bentov N, Bierle DMM, Browning LM, Cummings KC 3rd, Dougan BM, Maxwell M, Merli GJ, Oprea AD, Sweitzer B, Mauck KF, Urman RD. Preoperative Management of Cardiovascular Medications: A Society for Perioperative Assessment and Quality Improvement (SPAQI) Consensus Statement. Mayo Clin Proc. 2022 Sep;97(9):1734-1751. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2022.03.039. PMID: 36058586.

47. Baugh CW, Levine M, Cornutt D, Wilson JW, Kwun R, Mahan CE, Pollack CV Jr, Marcolini EG, Milling TJ Jr, Peacock WF, Rosovsky RP, Wu F, Sarode R, Spyropoulos AC, Villines TC, Woods TD, McManus J, Williams J. Anticoagulant Reversal Strategies in the Emergency Department Setting: Recommendations of a Multidisciplinary Expert Panel. Ann Emerg Med. 2020 Oct;76(4):470-485. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2019.09.001. Epub 2019 Nov 13. PMID: 31732375; PMCID: PMC7393606.

48. Writing Committee for the VISION Study Investigators; Devereaux PJ, Biccard BM, Sigamani A, Xavier D, Chan MTV, Srinathan SK, Walsh M, Abraham V, Pearse R, Wang CY, Sessler DI, Kurz A, Szczeklik W, Berwanger O, Villar JC, Malaga G, Garg AX, Chow CK, Ackland G, Patel A, Borges FK, Belley-Cote EP, Duceppe E, Spence J, Tandon V, Williams C, Sapsford RJ, Polanczyk CA, Tiboni M, Alonso-Coello P, Faruqui A, Heels-Ansdell D, Lamy A, Whitlock R, LeManach Y, Roshanov PS, McGillion M, Kavsak P, McQueen MJ, Thabane L, Rodseth RN, Buse GAL, Bhandari M, Garutti I, Jacka MJ, Schünemann HJ, Cortes OL, Coriat P, Dvirnik N, Botto F, Pettit S, Jaffe AS, Guyatt GH. Association of Postoperative High-Sensitivity Troponin Levels With Myocardial Injury and 30-Day Mortality Among Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery. JAMA. 2017 Apr 25;317(16):1642-1651. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.4360. PMID: 28444280.

49. Botto F, Alonso-Coello P, Chan MT, Villar JC, Xavier D, Srinathan S, Guyatt G, Cruz P, Graham M, Wang CY, Berwanger O, Pearse RM, Biccard BM, Abraham V, Malaga G, Hillis GS, Rodseth RN, Cook D, Polanczyk CA, Szczeklik W, Sessler DI, Sheth T, Ackland GL, Leuwer M, Garg AX, Lemanach Y, Pettit S, Heels-Ansdell D, Luratibuse G, Walsh M, Sapsford R, Schünemann HJ, Kurz A, Thomas S, Mrkobrada M, Thabane L, Gerstein H, Paniagua P, Nagele P, Raina P, Yusuf S, Devereaux PJ, Devereaux PJ, Sessler DI, Walsh M, Guyatt G, McQueen MJ, Bhandari M, Cook D, Bosch J, Buckley N, Yusuf S, Chow CK, Hillis GS, Halliwell R, Li S, Lee VW, Mooney J, Polanczyk CA, Furtado MV, Berwanger O, Suzumura E, Santucci E, Leite K, Santo JA, Jardim CA, Cavalcanti AB, Guimaraes HP, Jacka MJ, Graham M, McAlister F, McMurtry S, Townsend D, Pannu N, Bagshaw S, Bessissow A, Bhandari M, Duceppe E, Eikelboom J, Ganame J, Hankinson J, Hill S, Jolly S, Lamy A, Ling E, Magloire P, Pare G, Reddy D, Szalay D, Tittley J, Weitz J, Whitlock R, Darvish-Kazim S, Debeer J, Kavsak P, Kearon C, Mizera R, O'Donnell M, McQueen M, Pinthus J, Ribas S, Simunovic M, Tandon V, Vanhelder T, Winemaker M, Gerstein H, McDonald S, O'Bryne P, Patel A, Paul J, Punthakee Z, Raymer K, Salehian O, Spencer F, Walter S, Worster A, Adili A, Clase C, Cook D, Crowther M, Douketis J, Gangji A, Jackson P, Lim W, Lovrics P, Mazzadi S, Orovan W, Rudkowski J, Soth M, Tiboni M, Acedillo R, Garg A, Hildebrand A, Lam N, Macneil D, Mrkobrada M, Roshanov PS, Srinathan SK, Ramsey C, John PS, Thorlacius L, Siddiqui FS, Grocott HP, McKay A, Lee TW, Amadeo R, Funk D, McDonald H, Zacharias J, Villar JC, Cortés OL, Chaparro MS, Vásquez S, Castañeda A, Ferreira S, Coriat P, Monneret D, Goarin JP, Esteve CI, Royer C, Daas G, Chan MT, Choi GY, Gin T, Lit LC, Xavier D, Sigamani A, Faruqui A, Dhanpal R, Almeida S, Cherian J, Furruqh S, Abraham V, Afzal L, George P, Mala S, Schünemann H, Muti P, Vizza E, Wang CY, Ong GS, Mansor M, Tan AS, Shariffuddin II, Vasanthan V, Hashim NH, Undok AW, Ki U, Lai HY, Ahmad WA, Razack AH, Malaga G, Valderrama-Victoria V, Loza-Herrera JD, De Los Angeles Lazo M, Rotta-Rotta A, Szczeklik W, Sokolowska B, Musial J, Gorka J, Iwaszczuk P, Kozka M, Chwala M, Raczek M, Mrowiecki T, Kaczmarek B, Biccard B, Cassimjee H, Gopalan D, Kisten T, Mugabi A, Naidoo P, Naidoo R, Rodseth R, Skinner D, Torborg A, Paniagua P, Urrutia G, Maestre ML, Santaló M, Gonzalez R, Font A, Martínez C, Pelaez X, De Antonio M, Villamor JM, García JA, Ferré MJ, Popova E, Alonso-Coello P, Garutti I, Cruz P, Fernández C, Palencia M, Díaz S, Del Castillo T, Varela A, de Miguel A, Muñoz M, Piñeiro P, Cusati G, Del Barrio M, Membrillo MJ, Orozco D, Reyes F, Sapsford RJ, Barth J, Scott J, Hall A, Howell S, Lobley M, Woods J, Howard S, Fletcher J, Dewhirst N, Williams C, Rushton A, Welters I, Leuwer M, Pearse R, Ackland G, Khan A, Niebrzegowska E, Benton S, Wragg A, Archbold A, Smith A, McAlees E, Ramballi C, Macdonald N, Januszewska M, Stephens R, Reyes A, Paredes LG, Sultan P, Cain D, Whittle J, Del Arroyo AG, Sessler DI, Kurz A, Sun Z, Finnegan PS, Egan C, Honar H, Shahinyan A, Panjasawatwong K, Fu AY, Wang S, Reineks E, Nagele P, Blood J, Kalin M, Gibson D, Wildes T; Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN (VISION) Writing Group, on behalf of The Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN (VISION) Investigators; Appendix 1. The Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN (VISION) Study Investigators Writing Group; Appendix 2. The Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN Operations Committee; Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN VISION Study Investigators. Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery: a large, international, prospective cohort study establishing diagnostic criteria, characteristics, predictors, and 30-day outcomes. Anesthesiology. 2014 Mar;120(3):564-78. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000113. PMID: 24534856.

50. Ruetzler K, Smilowitz NR, Berger JS, Devereaux PJ, Maron BA, Newby LK, de Jesus Perez V, Sessler DI, Wijeysundera DN. Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Myocardial Injury After Noncardiac Surgery: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2021 Nov 9;144(19):e287-e305. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000001024. Epub 2021 Oct 4. PMID: 34601955.

bottom of page